A wage assignment is something a person agrees to when signing a contract. Because the person agrees to it, a creditor does not need to go to court before collecting money from their paycheck. A wage assignment can be canceled at any time.
On the other hand, a wage garnishment (sometimes called a "wage deduction") is not voluntary. The law only allows a creditor to garnish someone's wages once a creditor has filed a court case against them and won the case. A wage garnishment cannot be canceled.
Updated: August 2017