A summons is an official notice of a lawsuit. It is given to a person (or business) to let them know they are being sued. This gives them a chance to defend themselves. This notification procedure is called Service of Process.
Why is a summons important?
A lawsuit starts when a person files a complaint or petition. A complaint or petition is a document that says that the person being sued has done something wrong, or the person filing wants something to happen.
After a person files a complaint or petition, they will fill out a summons. Then, they will have the summons served on the other party. If a summons is served correctly on the other party, then the parties must go to court to present their case. If the other party doesn't show up in court, a person can automatically win the case.
If a person sues someone without giving them proper notice of the lawsuit, the case can be dismissed. Notice and an opportunity to be heard are required. To give proper notice, a person usually must give the other party a summons.
How much does it cost to serve a summons?
The cost depends on how you serve the summons. If a person uses the Sheriff, they can find out the fee by calling the Sheriff in their county. You may be able to get the fee waived for serving someone if you meet certain income and property guidelines and file a fee waiver.
How to serve a summons
A person cannot serve the summons and complaint on the defendant on their own. To satisfactorily serve the defendant, the summons and complaint must be handed to the defendant directly at their home or anywhere else; or they can be taken to the defendants home and given to someone who is at least 13 years old and lives in the home. If possible, the papers should be put in the hands of the person receiving them. But, this is not always required. If the person serving the papers speaks to the person receiving them through the door or sees them come to the door but then they go back into the house, the person can leave the papers on the door, or they can slip them under the door.
Usually, you can use one of these methods:
Serving a summons with the sheriff
A person can get the sheriff in their county to serve a summons after they file their complaint and pay a fee. This is the most common way to serve a summons. Follow these steps to serve a summons through the Sheriff:
- Make two copies of the summons and complaint;
- Take the copies of the summons and complaint to the sheriff to arrange for service on the defendant;
- The sheriff goes to the address you list on the summons and attempts to serve the defendant;
- If no one answers the door, the sheriff leaves and comes back a different day. They do not leave the papers on the door or force their way into the house; AND
- Once the sheriff serves the defendant, the sheriff fills out a sworn statement on the back of the summons copy and files it with the court. You can then move forward with your case.
Serving a summons using a professional process server
A person can hire a professional process server, who is licensed to serve people. This usually costs more than using the Sheriff, but it can help serve defendants who are hard to find or who are avoiding service.
To find a process server, a person can look in the yellow pages, or on the internet. The National Association of Professional Process Servers also has a directory that a person can search by ZIP Code.
Give a copy of the summons and complaint to the process server. Once they serve the defendant, they fill out a sworn statement on the back of the summons explaining how they served the defendant.
Serving a summons with a special process server (someone over the age of 18)
Anyone 18 years of age or older who is not a party to the lawsuit can serve a defendant, but the plaintiff must first ask the judge for permission. They must file a Motion for Appointment of Special Process Server.
In the motion, they must tell the judge the name of the person who will serve the defendant. A judge must issue an order appointing the server before they can serve the defendant. Learn more about filing a motion.
After serving the defendant, the person must complete a signed and notarized affidavit describing how they did it and attach it to the original summons. They must then file it with the court.
Serving a summons through publication in a newspaper
How to serve someone by publication in Illinois means that a notice is published in a paper in the area where the lawsuit was filed. The person needs to file a Motion for Leave to Serve by Publication and an Affidavit For Service by Publication before being allowed to give service through the newspaper. There is a fee for the publication costs if a person cannot afford to pay, fill out the Motion to Waive Publication Costs.
Go to court on the date the motion is heard and must show the judge that the sheriff or the special process server tried but was unable to serve the other party.
Note: A person cannot get everything they asked for in the lawsuit from the other party if they serve them by publication. They cannot get a judgment for money against someone when they serve them by publication. For example, this means that in a divorce case, a person would be able to get a divorce, but would not be able to get a judgment requiring the other side to pay child support.
E-filing in Illinois
Since January 1, 2018, e-filing is required, both for lawyers and people who are representing themselves in court. This may change the way serving a summons works. Check with the sheriff or local circuit court clerk for more information.
If there is no response to a summons
A summons usually gives the other side 30 days to file an appearance. If the other party does not respond to the summons, they may not have received it. What the person can check with whoever was supposed to deliver the summons, whether that is the sheriff, or a special process server, to see if the summons was delivered.
If the defendant was not served, the person who is suing must serve an alias summons. An alias summons is the second summons. A person can serve an alias summons just like a regular summons. A person cannot move forward with their case until the defendant is served.
Serving a company, partnership, or the government
There are separate rules for service of process on corporations, partnerships and the government.
- Corporations and partnerships: Generally, the summons and complaint must be served on the registered agent representing the corporation or organization or on an officer of the corporation.
- Government and government agencies: Depending on the type of lawsuit that a person files. If someone thinks they need to file their lawsuit against the government or a government agency, they should talk to an attorney.
Updated: April 2018