No. The unemployment system is not designed to help people get their jobs back. Unemployment benefits pays you money during the time you are unemployed, with certain restrictions, if you're eligible.
You're eligible for unemployment benefits if you're involuntarily unemployed. Involuntarily unemployed means you didn't quit and you weren't fired.
If you quit your job then you are considered voluntarily unemployed, unless you can make an argument that you were "constructively discharged." Constructively discharged means that a reasonable person faced with your employment situation would have quit.
Unemployment benefits are given out by the Illinois Department of Employment Security (IDES). IDES is the one that make the initial determination if you are eligible for unemployment benefits. You can learn more about the IDES on their website.
IDES only looks at your eligibility for unemployment benefits. IDES does not determine whether or not your employer fired you legally or illegally. If IDES says you weren't fired for misconduct, this does not automatically mean it was illegal for the employer to fire you.
Illinois is considered an "at will" employment state, with some exceptions. This means that if your employer wants to fire you, they can.
Illinois courts have stated an employer can fire an at will employee for "a good reason, a bad reason, or no reason at all." This does not mean that your employer acted legally if you were terminated for what a court may consider to be a "bad reason." You can speak to an attorney that specializes in employment law to discuss whether you employer acted legally when you were fired, if you feel that you were wrongfully fired because there are laws that protect people from being fired based on illegal reasons.
Updated: January 2017